Why Congress May Lawfully Require Citizens to Buy Guns & Ammunition, But Not To Submit To Obamacare.
By Publius Huldah.
Harvard Law School was embarrassed recently when one of its graduates, the putative President of the United States, demonstrated that he was unaware that the supreme Court has constitutional authority to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional.1
And after reading a recent paper by Harvard law professor Einer Elhauge, one wonders whether the academic standards (or is it the moral standards?) of that once great school have collapsed.
Professor Elhauge says in “If Health Insurance Mandates Are Unconstitutional, Why Did the Founding Fathers Back Them?” (The New Republic, April 13, 2012), that Congress may force us to buy health insurance because in 1792, our Framers required all male citizens to buy guns; and in 1798 required ship owners using U.S. ports (dock-Yards) to pay a fee to the federal government in order to fund hospitals for sick or disabled seamen at the U.S. ports.
Oh! What tangled webs are woven when law professors write about Our Constitution!
I have already proved that Art. I, Sec. 8, next to last clause (which grants to Congress “exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever” over dock-Yards and the other federal enclaves) is what authorizes Congress to assess the fee from ship owners who use the federal dock-Yards. See: Merchant Seamen in 1798, Health Care on Federal Enclaves, and Really Silly Journalists.
Now I will show you where the Constitution grants authority to Congress to require adult citizens to get armed!
The Constitution Authorizes Congress To Require Citizens to Buy Guns and Ammunition.
In 1792, Congress passed “An Act more effectually to provide for the National Defense by establishing an Uniform Militia throughout the United States”.2 This Act required all able-bodied male citizens (except for federal officers and employees) between the ages of 18 and under 45 to enroll in their State Militia, get a gun and ammunition, and train.
Does Congress have authority in the Constitution to require this? Yes! Article I, Sec. 8, clause 16 says Congress has the Power:
“To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;” [boldface mine]
That is what authorizes Congress to require adult male citizens to buy guns and ammunition.
As Section 1 of the Militia Act of 1792 reflects, the “Militia” is the citizenry! Our Framers thought it such a fine idea that The People be armed, that they required it by law! See, e.g., the second half of Federalist Paper No. 46 where James Madison, Father of Our Constitution, speaks of how wonderful it is that the American People are armed – and why they need to be. 3
So! In the case of Congress’ requiring adult citizens to buy guns and ammunition, Congress has specific authority under Art. I, Sec. 8, cl.16.
In the case of Congress’ requiring ship owners who use the federal dock-Yards to pay the fees to fund the marine hospitals at the dock-Yards, Congress is granted by Art. I, Sec.8, next to last clause, a general legislative power over the federal enclaves, such as dock-Yards.4
But for the country at large, Congress has no broad grant of legislative powers. There, Congress’ powers are few, limited, and strictly defined. See: Congress’ Enumerated Powers.
Now, let us look at obamacare.
What Clause in The Constitution Authorizes Congress to Force Us into Obamacare?
Nothing! Over the Country at large (as opposed to the federal enclaves), Congress has only enumerated powers. These enumerated powers are listed in Art. I, Sec. 8, clauses 1-16 and in the Amendments addressing civil and voting rights. No enumerated power authorizes the federal government to force us into obamacare.
So, Professor Elhauge introduces a nasty bit of poison. He says:
“Nevermind that nothing in the text or history of the Constitution’s Commerce Clause indicates that Congress cannot mandate commercial purchases.”
Do you see what he is doing? Surely he knows that obamacare is not authorized by any enumerated power. So! He asserts that nothing in the commerce clause says Congress can’t force us into obamacare. He thus seeks to pervert Our Constitution from one of enumerated powers only, to an abomination which says the federal government can do whatever it pleases as long as the commerce clause doesn’t forbid it.
Furthermore, what he says is demonstrably false. The Federalist Papers & Madison’s Journal of the Federal Convention show that the purpose of the interstate commerce clause is to prevent the States from imposing tolls & tariffs on articles of merchandize as they are transported through the States for purposes of buying and selling. For actual quotes from Our Framers and irrefutable Proof that this is the purpose of the interstate commerce clause, see: “Does the Interstate Commerce Clause Authorize Congress to Force Us to Buy Health Insurance?”.
Obamacare is unconstitutional as outside the scope of the legislative powers granted to Congress by Our Constitution. And it does much more than force us to buy medical insurance. Obamacare turns medical care over to the federal government to control. Bureaucrats in the Department of Health and Human Services will decide who gets medical treatment and what treatment they will get; and who will be denied medical treatment. If you think the federal government is doing a great job feeling up old ladies and little children at airports, wait until they are deciding whether you get medical care or “the painkiller”.
Folks! The Time has come that we must recognize that social security and Medicare are also unconstitutional as outside the scope of the legislative powers granted to Congress by Our Constitution. We must confess that it is wicked to seek to live at other peoples’ expense! And when a People renounce Personal Responsibility – as we did when we embraced social security & Medicare – the federal government takes control.
Social security and Medicare are fiscally bankrupt. Obamacare, which will prevent old people from getting medical care, is the progressives’ way of dealing with the unfunded liabilities in these programs: Kill off old people by preventing them from getting medical care!
The Piper will be paid. Shall we pay him by killing off old people?
Or, shall we return to Personal Responsibility and dismantle (in an orderly fashion) the wicked, unconstitutional, and fiscally unworkable social security and Medicare programs?
1 Our Framers gave us an elegant system of Checks & Balances: Each branch of the federal government has a “check” on the other two branches. This is expressed primarily in the Oath of Office (Art. VI, cl. 3 & Art. II, Sec. 1, last clause) which requires each branch to obey the Constitution and not the other branches! The supreme Court’s check on Congress is to declare their Acts unconstitutional: See (in addition to the Oath) Art. III, Sec. 2, cl. 1; Federalist No. 78 (8th -15th paras); and Marbury v. Madison (1803).
Congress’ check on the judicial branch is to impeach and remove federal judges who usurp power (Federalist No. 81, 8th para).
2 Here is the URL for the Militia Act of 1792: Read it! And note how short it is. http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=llsl&fileName=001/llsl001.db&recNum=394
3 In “The Patriot”, Mel Gibson’s character commanded a South Carolina Militia – civilians who took up arms against the British. Everyone knew that “the Militia” was the armed citizenry – farmers, trappers, shopkeepers, clergy, etc. It still is.
4 Attorney Hal Rounds provides fascinating additional information on this issue: “Ships will dump sick sailors wherever they may make landfall, and the locals have the burden of dealing with the victim. Their care then raises the legal right to compensation for their services, which the law of nations allows to be levied against the nation, not just the owners, of the ship.” For Mr. Round’s full comment see the Postscript of April 7, 2012 here. PH
May 3, 2012 Posted by Publius Huldah | Einer Elhauge, federal enclaves, Health Care, Interstate Commerce Clause, Medicare, Merchant Seamen healthcare, Militia, obamacare, Personal Responsibility, social security | commerce clause, Einer Elhauge, Harvard Law School, Militia | 26 Comments
By Publius Huldah.
A little knowledge is a dangerous thing; and no one illustrates this Principle better than Forbes’ writer Rick Unger in his article, “Congress Passes Socialized Medicine and Mandates Health Insurance – In 1798”, Washington Post writer Greg Sargent and Georgetown University history professor Adam Rothman.
In 1798, Congress passed An Act for the relief of sick and disabled Seamen which required the master of every American ship arriving from foreign ports to any port of the United States, and American ships engaged in the coastal trade using those ports, to pay a small fee to the federal government for every seaman employed on his ship. The funds so raised were used to care for sick and disabled seamen in the marine hospitals established in the ports of the United States.
So! Unger cited this 1798 Act and chortled with glee that our Framers supported “socialized medicine”; and so the “political right-wing” should stop “pretending” that our Founding Fathers would oppose obamacare.
Greg Sargent chimed in to the same effect, and quoted history professor Adam Rothman for the idiotic propositions that
“…the post-revolutionary generation clearly thought that the national government had a role in subsidizing health care … that in itself is pretty remarkable and a strong refutation of the basic principles that some Tea Party types offer … This defies a lot of stereotypes about limited government in the early republic.”
But Unger’s, Sargent’s and Rothman’s statements are so transparently ignorant they can be disposed of in a few paragraphs:
Congress’ Three Categories of Legislative Powers
One: Congress has only limited legislative powers over the Country at large. These legislative powers are restricted to war, international commerce & relations; and domestically, the creation of an uniform commercial system: weights & measures, patents & copyrights, a monetary system based on gold & silver, bankruptcy laws, and mail delivery. Various Amendments granted to Congress certain powers over civil rights. These enumerated powers are the only areas wherein the national government has lawful (constitutional) authority over The States and The People in The States. In all other matters [except those listed at Art. I, Sec. 10] the States and The People retained supremacy, independence, and sovereignty.
Two: Article I, Sec. 8, clause 17, U.S. Constitution, says:
“The Congress shall have Power To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislatures of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings;” [boldface mine]
“Exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever” over “dock-Yards”. Do you see? It is this clause which grants to Congress authority to establish marine hospitals on dock-Yards belonging to the United States. Congress has a general legislative authority over the federal enclaves, such as dock-Yards. That legislative authority is limited only by the Bill of Rights.
In Federalist Paper No. 43 at 2., James Madison explains in three short paragraphs [read them!] why the federal government must have “complete authority” over the federal enclaves listed at Art. I, Sec. 8, cl.17.
Alexander Hamilton in Federalist No. 32 (2nd para), comments also on the grant of “EXCLUSIVE LEGISLATION” over the federal enclaves [capitals are Hamilton’s] in “The last clause but one in the eighth section of the first article…”
Do you see? That grant of “exclusive legislation” is restricted to the federal enclaves.
Three: Article IV, Sec. 3, cl. 2, grants to Congress the “Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States…” Madison shows in Federalist No. 43 at 5. that “the Territory” referred primarily to the Western Territory before it was formed into States.
That’s it, Folks!
So! While Rick Unger crowed in his article,
“While I’m sure a number of readers are scratching their heads in the effort to find the distinction between the circumstances of 1798 and today, I think you’ll find it difficult.”
It’s not difficult at all! All one has to do is read Art. I, Sec. 8, cl. 17, which permits Congress to make such a law for American ships using the dock-Yards belonging to the United States. That’s what “exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever” means. Do you see?
Congress has no such legislative authority for the Country at large. There, it is limited and enumerated. PH
April 5, 2012
Postscript Added April 7, 2012:
Attorney Hal Rounds (Memphis, TN), gave me the following fascinating information:
“My GGrandfather was a U.S. Consul, his last post was in Nova Scotia. Among his records is a series of reports regarding how he arranged for the isolation, shelter, and nursing in Nova Scotia of an American sailor ill with smallpox. The ship left, after disembarking the now useless – and contagious – victim. This care necessitated local expenses and hiring. I do not know what, if any, of the cost was borne by the ship owner, and what portion was by the U.S. Government. (The sailor survived, and eventually was sent on his way.)
But the duties of a nation extend to some services to its citizens abroad. These are, of course, governed by treaties and customary traditions. So, a law requiring a ship operator to insure his crew fits in with the federal authority to regulate “commerce with foreign nations” and its jurisdiction over U.S. flag shipping outside, or traveling between, state jurisdictions. Because ships will dump sick sailors wherever they may make landfall, and the locals have the burden of dealing with the victim. Their care then raises the legal right to compensation for their services, which the law of nations allows to be levied against the nation, not just the owners, of the ship.
The requirement in 1798 addressed these concerns. It was not a requirement to subsidize health care for the citizenry at large, but to indemnify the federal government against claims that would arise in the course of the U.S. being a nation engaged in international trade, and, under the law of nations, responsible for the burdens its commerce threw upon foreigners; and to accommodate the demands the foreign vessels would dump on us.”
THANK YOU, Hal! I showed how Congress had the authority to make the law; you explained why Congress needed to make the law, and provided additional constitutional authority for Congress to make the law. PH
April 5, 2012 Posted by Publius Huldah | federal enclaves, Health Care, Merchant Seamen healthcare, obamacare | Congress' legislative powers, federal enclaves, merchant seamen, obamacare, socialized medicine | 6 Comments
Lawyer, philosopher & logician. Strict constructionist of the U.S. Constitution. Passionate about The Federalist Papers (Alexander Hamilton, James Madison & John Jay), restoring constitutional government, The Bible, the writings of Ayn Rand, & the following:
There is no such thing as Jew & Greek, slave & freeman, male & female, black person & white person; for we are all one person in Christ Jesus.
* * *
WARNING AGAINST A CON-CON a/k/a “constitutional convention” or “Article V convention” or “Convention of the States”: Do not be deceived by the people who are calling for these. Go here and read the warning of James Madison and others. Be sure to read “Twenty Questions About a Constitutional Convention”: http://www.eagleforum.org/topics/concon/
See also this valuable article by Phyllis Schlafly which addresses Mark Levin’s untrue claims about a “convention called by the States to propose amendments”.
In these two articles, investigative journalist Kelleigh Nelson exposes the nefarious forces – on the phony “Right” – involved in the push for an Article V convention. Folks, the leadership at “Tea Party Patriots” is not on your side. Nelson also reveals names of other phonies on the “right”. http://www.newswithviews.com/Nelson/kelleigh136.htm
Dr. Edwin Vieira has reminded us that the “necessary & proper” clause (Art. I, Sec. 8, last clause) vests in Congress the power to make all laws necessary & proper to execute its delegated powers. Since Article V delegates to CONGRESS the power to call the convention, Congress would be within its constitutional authority to organize the Convention anyway it wants, and to appoint whomsoever it wishes as delegates. http://www.newswithviews.com/Vieira/edwin262.htm
John A. Eidsmoe, a law professor who actually knows what he talking about, wrote a fascinating paper on all aspects of Article V: http://publiushuldah.files.wordpress.com/2014/01/a-new-constitutional-convention-by-john-a-eidsmoe.pdf Put this paper in your permanent files!
Do not be deceived by the “scholarly research” of Rob Natelson, law professor. Natelson trumpets the fanciful theory that alleged “customs” practiced in our “Founding Era” provide binding principles which govern conventions called under Article V of our existing Constitution! Here is JWK’s excellent expose’ of Professor Natelson’s preposterous theory: http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/bloggers/3062146/posts
Believe no one. You must check everything out for yourself. Our future hangs on your being able to tell the difference between Good and Evil. And on your caring about the difference.
* * *
The Acceptance Con by Selwyn Duke explains (brilliantly) how moral relativism has destroyed our Country. Libertarianism carries within itself the seeds of Destruction. Oh, my Friends, take heed!
* * *
“The sacred rights of mankind are not to be rummaged for among old parchments or musty records. they are written, as with a sunbeam, in the whole volume of human nature, by the hand of the divinity itself, and can never be erased or obscured by mortal power.”
Alexander Hamilton, “The Farmer Refuted”, February 5, 1775.
* * *
“As democracy is perfected, the office of the President represents, more and more closely, the inner soul of the people. On some great and glorious day, the plain folks of the land will reach their heart’s desire at last, and the White House will be occupied by a downright fool and a complete narcissistic moron.”
H.L. Mencken, The Baltimore Evening Sun, July 26, 1920.
* * *
“If the America People do not rise up and defend their Constitution and the intentions and beliefs under which it was adopted, who is left to do so but the very people who it was designed to control and regulate?” Johnwk
* * *
“Any man who thinks he can be happy and prosperous by letting the Government take care of him, better take a closer look at the American Indian.” Attributed to Henry Ford.
* * *
I saw a movie where only the military and the police had guns: Schindler’s List.
* * *
“In religion and politics people’s beliefs and convictions are in almost every case gotten at second-hand, and without examination, from authorities who have not themselves examined the questions at issue but have taken them at second-hand from other non-examiners, whose opinions about them were not worth a brass farthing.” Autobiography of Mark Twain
* * *
PERMISSION to re-post: You may re-post my papers on your own sites, provided you do not change the text, retain all the hyperlinks, and have a link back to my website. However, since I periodically revise my papers, the better practice is to post a para or so and have a “continue reading here” which links to my site. That way, your readers will have the most recently revised edition.
* * *
Where do Rights come from? God? The Constitution? The supreme Court? Or the “government”? I’ll show you. It is important that you understand. (videos in two parts totaling 22 minutes)
* * *
To the Department of Homeland Security:
I am delighted to learn of your intense & increasing interest in learning the original intent of Our Constitution! Please feel free to browse around to your hearts’ content.
Also, if any of you have questions as to the original intent of any provision or provisions of Our Constitution, please feel free to post your questions.
To learn Our Constitution, you will need to get a copy of The Federalist Papers; and for word definitions, Webster’s 1828 Dictionary of the American Language. You can find The Federalist Papers on line; and here is an online copy of Webster’s 1828 Dictionary: http://webstersdictionary1828.com/
As I trust you know, word meaning are like the clouds: meanings change as time passes. So, naturally, we want to focus on the meanings enjoyed by Words during the Era of our Founding.
OK! Here is your homework assignment: Get a hard copy of The Declaration of Independence and our Constitution. Read them cover to cover. Using different colored pencils, highlight (1) the powers of Congress, (2) the powers of the Executive Branch, and (3) the powers of the judicial branch.
With a 4th color, highlight all references to God in both Documents!
Please pay particular attention to what the Declaration says about the SOURCE of our Rights. Mark that with a 5th color.
Surprising, isn’t it?
Oh! You can get pocket copies from the Cato Institute, the Heritage Foundation, etc. I think Heritage sells them in bulk – really cheap – so you can buy lots and distribute them to your co-workers, family and friends.
Again, do not be shy about posting your questions! I am just a little old lady, and do not bite.
Kindest regards, Publius Huldah.
Publius Huldah explains when Nullification of unconstitutional acts of the Legislative, Executive, or Judicial Branches of the federal government is required by Article VI, clause 3, U.S. Constitution.
- 10th Amendment
- 12th Amendment
- 14th Amendment
- 17th Amendment
- 1st Amendment
- 28th Amendment
- 2nd Amendment
- 501 (c) (3) tax exemption
- Administrative Law
- Advice and Consent
- alien and sedition acts
- Allen C. Guelzo
- Amendments to the Constitution
- Amendments: Parental Rights Amendment
- Arizona Illegal Alien Law
- Arizona Invasion
- Arizona Lawsuit
- Arizona's Proposition 200
- armed citizens
- Article I, Sec. 2
- Article II, Sec. 2
- Article II, Sec. 3
- Article II, Sec. 4
- Article III Courts
- Article III, Sec. 1
- Article III, Sec. 2
- Article IV, Sec. 4
- Article V
- Article V Convention
- Article VI, clause 2
- Article VI, clause 3
- Balance of Powers Act
- Balanced Budget Amendment
- Bible and civil government
- Bills of attainder
- Bureau of Alcohol Firearms and Tobacco (ATF)
- Checks and Balances
- Climate Change Treaty
- Compact for America
- Constitution is not a suicide pact
- constitutional convention
- Convention of States project
- Criminal Code (US)
- cultural relativism
- Danbury Baptists
- David Barton
- Declaration of Independence
- Definitions and Basic Concepts
- Department of Health and Human Services
- Department of Labor
- Dick Act of 1902
- due process clause
- Edwin Vieira
- Einer Elhauge
- Elastic clause
- Election of President
- Election of U.S. Senators
- Elections Clause
- Electoral College
- Engel v. Vitale
- Enumerated Powers of Congress
- Enumerated Powers of Federal Courts
- Enumerated powers of the president
- equal protection clause
- establishment clause
- ex post facto laws
- Exceptions clause
- Exclusive and Concurrent Jurisdiction
- Executive Orders
- Federal Convention of 1787
- federal enclaves
- free exercise clause
- General Welfare Clause
- God-given Rights
- Guardians of the Constitution
- gun control
- Health Care
- Health Insurance – Auto Insurance analogy
- Heritage Foundation
- High crimes and misdemeanors
- Hugo Black and the KKK
- immigration from muslim countries
- Interstate Commerce Clause
- Isaiah 33:22
- Isaiah 3:12
- islamic conquest
- islamic infiltration
- Islamization (Islamification)
- Jarrett Stepman
- Jim Crow laws
- Jim DeMint
- Jordan Sillars
- Judicial Abuse
- Kentucky Resolutions of 1798
- Kevin Gutzman
- Liberty Amendments
- Madison's Notes on Nullification (1834)
- Madison's Report on the Virginia Resolutions (1799-1800)
- man made anti-rights
- Marbury v. Madison
- Marco Rubio
- Mark Levin
- marque and reprisal
- Martin Luther King
- Matthew Spalding
- Merchant Seamen healthcare
- Michael Farris
- Michael Seidman
- name calling
- National Popular Vote
- natural born citizen
- Necessary and Proper clause
- Nick Dranias
- Nullification by States
- nullification deniers
- nullification of obamacare
- Nullification of unconstitutional acts
- Nullification Resolutions
- Oath of Office
- Original and appellate jurisdiction
- Original Intent or Evolving Constitution?
- our sword and shield
- Parental Rights Amendment
- Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
- Personal Responsibility
- Phony right wing
- Phyllis Schlafly
- Pledge of Allegiance
- prayer in public schools
- President's enumerated powers
- President's powers
- Presidential Electors
- prevailing dogma
- Progressive Education
- Randy Barnett
- re-writing the Constitution
- Recess Appointments
- Reserved Powers
- Resistance to tyranny
- Retained Powers
- Robert A. Levy Cato Institute
- Rule of Law
- Rulemaking by Executive Agencies
- safety nets for the poor
- Self Government
- Sell out Republicans
- Sen. Mike Lee
- Separation of Church and State?
- separation of powers
- shining city on a hill
- social safety nets
- social security
- South Carolina nullification crisis
- Sovereign States
- Spineless Republicans
- States Retained Powers
- States Rights
- Supremacy clause
- Supreme Law of the Land
- sweeping clause
- Tariff of Abominations
- Tarrif Act of 1828
- Tennessee Constitution
- Tenth Amendment
- Term Limits Amendment
- The Liberty Amendments
- The taxing clause
- The Tennessee Resolutions
- Thomas Jefferson
- Treaty Making Powers of the United States
- Troxel v. Granville
- UN Convention on the Rights of the Child
- UN Declaration of Rights
- under the law
- Usurpations of power
- Virginia Resolutions of 1798
- Voter eligibility
- Voter Qualifications
- April 2014 (1)
- February 2014 (3)
- January 2014 (1)
- December 2013 (1)
- September 2013 (2)
- August 2013 (1)
- July 2013 (2)
- April 2013 (1)
- March 2013 (2)
- January 2013 (2)
- December 2012 (1)
- November 2012 (1)
- August 2012 (1)
- July 2012 (2)
- June 2012 (1)
- May 2012 (1)
- April 2012 (2)
- March 2012 (1)
- February 2012 (1)
- January 2012 (2)
- December 2011 (1)
- August 2011 (1)
- June 2011 (1)
- April 2011 (1)
- March 2011 (2)
- February 2011 (1)
- January 2011 (2)
- December 2010 (1)
- October 2010 (1)
- September 2010 (1)
- August 2010 (1)
- July 2010 (2)
- June 2010 (1)
- May 2010 (1)
- April 2010 (2)
- March 2010 (2)
- January 2010 (1)
- December 2009 (1)
- October 2009 (4)
- September 2009 (2)
- June 2009 (4)
- Mark Levin’s “Liberty” Amendments: Legalizing Tyranny
- Article V Convention: How “Individuals of Insidious Views” Are Stealing Our Constitution
- Balanced Budget Amendments (BBA) Gut Our Constitution And Don’t Reduce Spending
- Balancing the Budget? Or Adding A National Sales Tax To The Income Tax?
- Propaganda And The Conspiracy against Our Constitution
- The “Convention of States” Scam, the War over the Constitution, and how the States Sold the Reserved Powers to the Feds.
- Mark Levin Refuted: Keep the Feds in Check with Nullification, not Amendments!
- Restore The Constitution We Have By Learning What It Means!
- Impeachment: All you need to know (and you do need to know it).
- Parental Rights: God-given and Unalienable? Or Government-granted and Revocable?