Merchant Seamen In 1798, Health Care On Federal Enclaves, And Really Silly Journalists.
By Publius Huldah.
A little knowledge is a dangerous thing; and no one illustrates this Principle better than Forbes’ writer Rick Unger in his article, “Congress Passes Socialized Medicine and Mandates Health Insurance – In 1798”, Washington Post writer Greg Sargent and Georgetown University history professor Adam Rothman.
In 1798, Congress passed An Act for the relief of sick and disabled Seamen which required the master of every American ship arriving from foreign ports to any port of the United States, and American ships engaged in the coastal trade using those ports, to pay a small fee to the federal government for every seaman employed on his ship. The funds so raised were used to care for sick and disabled seamen in the marine hospitals established in the ports of the United States.
So! Unger cited this 1798 Act and chortled with glee that our Framers supported “socialized medicine”; and so the “political right-wing” should stop “pretending” that our Founding Fathers would oppose obamacare.
Greg Sargent chimed in to the same effect, and quoted history professor Adam Rothman for the idiotic propositions that
“…the post-revolutionary generation clearly thought that the national government had a role in subsidizing health care … that in itself is pretty remarkable and a strong refutation of the basic principles that some Tea Party types offer … This defies a lot of stereotypes about limited government in the early republic.”
But Unger’s, Sargent’s and Rothman’s statements are so transparently ignorant they can be disposed of in a few paragraphs:
Congress’ Three Categories of Legislative Powers
One: Congress has only limited legislative powers over the Country at large. These legislative powers are restricted to war, international commerce & relations; and domestically, the creation of an uniform commercial system: weights & measures, patents & copyrights, a monetary system based on gold & silver, bankruptcy laws, and mail delivery. Various Amendments granted to Congress certain powers over civil rights. These enumerated powers are the only areas wherein the national government has lawful (constitutional) authority over The States and The People in The States. In all other matters [except those listed at Art. I, Sec. 10] the States and The People retained supremacy, independence, and sovereignty.
Two: Article I, Sec. 8, clause 17, U.S. Constitution, says:
“The Congress shall have Power To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislatures of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings;” [boldface mine]
“Exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever” over “dock-Yards”. Do you see? It is this clause which grants to Congress authority to establish marine hospitals on dock-Yards belonging to the United States. Congress has a general legislative authority over the federal enclaves, such as dock-Yards. That legislative authority is limited only by the Bill of Rights.
In Federalist Paper No. 43 at 2., James Madison explains in three short paragraphs [read them!] why the federal government must have “complete authority” over the federal enclaves listed at Art. I, Sec. 8, cl.17.
Alexander Hamilton in Federalist No. 32 (2nd para), comments also on the grant of “EXCLUSIVE LEGISLATION” over the federal enclaves [capitals are Hamilton’s] in “The last clause but one in the eighth section of the first article…”
Do you see? That grant of “exclusive legislation” is restricted to the federal enclaves.
Three: Article IV, Sec. 3, cl. 2, grants to Congress the “Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States…” Madison shows in Federalist No. 43 at 5. that “the Territory” referred primarily to the Western Territory before it was formed into States.
That’s it, Folks!
So! While Rick Unger crowed in his article,
“While I’m sure a number of readers are scratching their heads in the effort to find the distinction between the circumstances of 1798 and today, I think you’ll find it difficult.”
It’s not difficult at all! All one has to do is read Art. I, Sec. 8, cl. 17, which permits Congress to make such a law for American ships using the dock-Yards belonging to the United States. That’s what “exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever” means. Do you see?
Congress has no such legislative authority for the Country at large. There, it is limited and enumerated. PH
April 5, 2012
Postscript Added April 7, 2012:
Attorney Hal Rounds (Memphis, TN), gave me the following fascinating information:
“My GGrandfather was a U.S. Consul, his last post was in Nova Scotia. Among his records is a series of reports regarding how he arranged for the isolation, shelter, and nursing in Nova Scotia of an American sailor ill with smallpox. The ship left, after disembarking the now useless – and contagious – victim. This care necessitated local expenses and hiring. I do not know what, if any, of the cost was borne by the ship owner, and what portion was by the U.S. Government. (The sailor survived, and eventually was sent on his way.)
But the duties of a nation extend to some services to its citizens abroad. These are, of course, governed by treaties and customary traditions. So, a law requiring a ship operator to insure his crew fits in with the federal authority to regulate “commerce with foreign nations” and its jurisdiction over U.S. flag shipping outside, or traveling between, state jurisdictions. Because ships will dump sick sailors wherever they may make landfall, and the locals have the burden of dealing with the victim. Their care then raises the legal right to compensation for their services, which the law of nations allows to be levied against the nation, not just the owners, of the ship.
The requirement in 1798 addressed these concerns. It was not a requirement to subsidize health care for the citizenry at large, but to indemnify the federal government against claims that would arise in the course of the U.S. being a nation engaged in international trade, and, under the law of nations, responsible for the burdens its commerce threw upon foreigners; and to accommodate the demands the foreign vessels would dump on us.”
THANK YOU, Hal! I showed how Congress had the authority to make the law; you explained why Congress needed to make the law, and provided additional constitutional authority for Congress to make the law. PH
April 5, 2012 - Posted by Publius Huldah | federal enclaves, Health Care, Merchant Seamen healthcare, obamacare | Congress' legislative powers, federal enclaves, merchant seamen, obamacare, socialized medicine
6 Comments »
Lawyer, philosopher & logician. Strict constructionist of the U.S. Constitution. Passionate about The Federalist Papers (Alexander Hamilton, James Madison & John Jay), restoring constitutional government, The Bible, the writings of Ayn Rand, & the following:
There is no such thing as Jew & Greek, slave & freeman, male & female, black person & white person; for we are all one person in Christ Jesus.
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WARNING AGAINST A CON-CON a/k/a “constitutional convention” or “Article V convention” or “Convention of the States”: Do not be deceived by the people who are calling for these. Go here and read the warning of James Madison and others. Be sure to read “Twenty Questions About a Constitutional Convention”: http://www.eagleforum.org/topics/concon/
See also this valuable article by Phyllis Schlafly which addresses Mark Levin’s untrue claims about a “convention called by the States to propose amendments”.
In these two articles, investigative journalist Kelleigh Nelson exposes the nefarious forces – on the phony “Right” – involved in the push for an Article V convention. Folks, the leadership at “Tea Party Patriots” is not on your side. Nelson also reveals names of other phonies on the “right”. http://www.newswithviews.com/Nelson/kelleigh136.htm
Dr. Edwin Vieira has reminded us that the “necessary & proper” clause (Art. I, Sec. 8, last clause) vests in Congress the power to make all laws necessary & proper to execute its delegated powers. Since Article V delegates to CONGRESS the power to call the convention, Congress would be within its constitutional authority to organize the Convention anyway it wants, and to appoint whomsoever it wishes as delegates. http://www.newswithviews.com/Vieira/edwin262.htm
John A. Eidsmoe, a law professor who actually knows what he talking about, wrote a fascinating paper on all aspects of Article V: http://publiushuldah.files.wordpress.com/2014/01/a-new-constitutional-convention-by-john-a-eidsmoe.pdf Put this paper in your permanent files!
Do not be deceived by the “scholarly research” of Rob Natelson, law professor. Natelson trumpets the fanciful theory that alleged “customs” practiced in our “Founding Era” provide binding principles which govern conventions called under Article V of our existing Constitution! Here is JWK’s excellent expose’ of Professor Natelson’s preposterous theory: http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/bloggers/3062146/posts
A contemptible website which goes by the name, “The 28th Amendment Article V Project to Restore Liberty” has posted links to MY website thus creating the false impression that I am in agreement with their despicable, ignorant, wrongheaded, idiotic, evil, contemptible, clamoring for an Article V convention.
They link me by association with organizations which I deem to be evil.
The enemy lies – they create false impressions – they will do anything to dupe the American people into supporting their call for an Article V Convention.
Make no mistake: these evil people want to get rid of Our Constitution and replace it with a new Constitution which I promise you you will not like.
What happened to honest debate?
Oh I know: The opposition can not defend their positions intellectually or morally.
All they can do is smear people or and try to create the false impression that we are on their evil side.
Again, I warn you: Trust no one. You must check everything out for yourself.
Our future hangs on your being able to tell the difference between Good and Evil.
And on your caring about the difference.
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The Acceptance Con by Selwyn Duke explains (brilliantly) how moral relativism has destroyed our Country. Libertarianism carries within itself the seeds of Destruction. Oh, my Friends, take heed!
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“The sacred rights of mankind are not to be rummaged for among old parchments or musty records. they are written, as with a sunbeam, in the whole volume of human nature, by the hand of the divinity itself, and can never be erased or obscured by mortal power.”
Alexander Hamilton, “The Farmer Refuted”, February 5, 1775.
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“As democracy is perfected, the office of the President represents, more and more closely, the inner soul of the people. On some great and glorious day, the plain folks of the land will reach their heart’s desire at last, and the White House will be occupied by a downright fool and a complete narcissistic moron.”
H.L. Mencken, The Baltimore Evening Sun, July 26, 1920.
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“If the America People do not rise up and defend their Constitution and the intentions and beliefs under which it was adopted, who is left to do so but the very people who it was designed to control and regulate?” Johnwk
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“Any man who thinks he can be happy and prosperous by letting the Government take care of him, better take a closer look at the American Indian.” Attributed to Henry Ford.
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I saw a movie where only the military and the police had guns: Schindler’s List.
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“In religion and politics people’s beliefs and convictions are in almost every case gotten at second-hand, and without examination, from authorities who have not themselves examined the questions at issue but have taken them at second-hand from other non-examiners, whose opinions about them were not worth a brass farthing.” Autobiography of Mark Twain
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PERMISSION to re-post: You may re-post my papers on your own sites, provided you do not change the text, retain all the hyperlinks, and have a link back to my website. However, since I periodically revise my papers, the better practice is to post a para or so and have a “continue reading here” which links to my site. That way, your readers will have the most recently revised edition.
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Where do Rights come from? God? The Constitution? The supreme Court? Or the “government”? I’ll show you. It is important that you understand. (videos in two parts totaling 22 minutes)
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To the Department of Homeland Security:
I am delighted to learn of your intense & increasing interest in learning the original intent of Our Constitution! Please feel free to browse around to your hearts’ content.
Also, if any of you have questions as to the original intent of any provision or provisions of Our Constitution, please feel free to post your questions.
To learn Our Constitution, you will need to get a copy of The Federalist Papers; and for word definitions, Webster’s 1828 Dictionary of the American Language. You can find The Federalist Papers on line; and here is an online copy of Webster’s 1828 Dictionary: http://1828.mshaffer.com/
As I trust you know, word meaning are like the clouds: meanings change as time passes. So, naturally, we want to focus on the meanings enjoyed by Words during the Era of our Founding.
OK! Here is your homework assignment: Get a hard copy of The Declaration of Independence and our Constitution. Read them cover to cover. Using different colored pencils, highlight (1) the powers of Congress, (2) the powers of the Executive Branch, and (3) the powers of the judicial branch.
With a 4th color, highlight all references to God in both Documents!
Please pay particular attention to what the Declaration says about the SOURCE of our Rights. Mark that with a 5th color.
Surprising, isn’t it?
Oh! You can get pocket copies from the Cato Institute, the Heritage Foundation, etc. I think Heritage sells them in bulk – really cheap – so you can buy lots and distribute them to your co-workers, family and friends.
Again, do not be shy about posting your questions! I am just a little old lady, and do not bite.
Kindest regards, Publius Huldah.
Publius Huldah explains when Nullification of unconstitutional acts of the Legislative, Executive, or Judicial Branches of the federal government is required by Article VI, clause 3, U.S. Constitution.
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